A bit of preamble goes here
Midori is a fast little WebKit browser with support for HTML5. It can manage many open tabs and windows. The URL bar completes history, bookmarks, search engines and open tabs out of the box. Web developers can use the powerful web inspector that is a part of WebKit. Individual pages can easily be turned into web apps and new profiles can be created on demand. The browser comes loaded with useful extensions out of the box (adblock, user scripts and styles, download managers, cookie and script managers and many others).
Pantheon Files AKA Files
The Launchpad page describes Pantheon Files as a simple, powerful, and sexy file manager designed for the elementary OS. The file manager is fully integrated with GTK+3 and Granite and supports extensions written in Vala. Files can easily integrate itself with Drop-box. Its strongest feature isn’t tab browsing, but allowing the restoration of closed tabs.
Geary is a lightweight email client designed by the Yorba Foundation. It’s designed to let you read your email quickly and effortlessly. Its interface is based on conversations, so you can easily read an entire discussion without having to click from message to message. It supports IMAP and SMTP email protocols.
Maya AKA Calendar
Maya is a slim, lightweight GTK+3 calendar app written in Vala, designed for elementary OS. The elementary team is planning to integrate online services (such as Google Calendar) with this awesome app in elementary OS Isis
Noise AKA Music
Noise is a fast and beautiful GTK3 audio player with a focus on music and libraries. It handles external devices, CDs, and album art. Noise utilizes Granite for a consistent and slick UI. It is the default music player in elementary OS and is simply known as Music.
Totem AKA Movie Player
Totem is a simple movie player designed by the developers at the GNOME Project. It is based on xine-lib or GStreamer. It features a playlist, a full-screen mode, seek and volume controls, as well as keyboard navigation.
Scratch – text editor
Scratch is the text editor that works for you. It auto-saves your files, meaning they’re always up-to-date. Plus it remembers your tabs so you never lose your spot, even in between sessions. Scratch is written from the ground up to be extensible. And with a handful of useful preferences, you can tweak the behavior and interface to your liking. When using the editor, you will experience full syntax highlighting with nearly all programming, scripting, and markup languages. Scratch is designed for elementary OS.
GNOME Screenshot AKA Screenshot
Is a utility used to take screenshots (images) of your desktop. It was designed designed by the developers at The GNOME Project (gnome.org). It provides several options, including capturing the whole desktop or just a single window, a time delay function, and some image effects.
Shotwell AKA Pantheon Photos AKA Photos
Shotwell was originally designed by the Yorba Foundation. The elementary team has decided to adopt and adapt the great photo manager for the elementary desktop. Pantheon Photos lets you import photos from disk or camera, organize them in various ways, view them in full-window or fullscreen mode, and export them to share with others.
Pantheon Terminal AKA Terminal
This is a super lightweight, beautiful, and simple terminal emulator designed for elementary OS. It’s designed to be setup with sane defaults and little to no configuration. It’s just a terminal, nothing more, nothing less.